After the World War I and after the Ottomans have left, the new era of Sarajevo history begin.
1918 – 1941
In Zagreb on 5th and 6th October of 1918, meeting was held, at which the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (SHS) was formed, in the joint independent state.
By that decision Bosnia and Herzegovina become the part of new state, and lost the importance it had while it was separate province in the period of Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian occupation. Four years of war have been totally exhausting for the people of Sarajevo, after which came big problems came along.
Problems, of food and basic life supplies. Impoverished rural population during the war, had settled in Sarajevo in search of a new life. List of population which was completed in 1921 showed that city had 58.382 inhabitants. During the Austro-Hungarian rule, Sarajevo was political, economical and cultural center. Large public works, industry development were ongoing, but in Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes it loses the role of administrative center of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Large and major institutions are being transferred to Belgrade and other cities of the Kingdom.
In 1922, certain laws had secured that Sarajevo lost its attribute of capital city and became the only the administrative center of Sarajevo area, and in the March 3rd of 1929, after the Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into 4 districts, Sarajevo become the center of Drinsko district.
City has been hit by a huge problems, from shortness of money, staff, foreign capital, lack of public works, to a large influx of a non-eligible workforce etc, plus the crisis of thirties, which, even more made already bad situation worse.
Although Sarajevo lost the primacy of the economic and administrational center it still remained an important cultural center. In those years, under full capacity operate cultural societies: SHS, Sloga, Lira, Gajret, Trebević, etc. After the intensity of the crisis has dropped, the processes of development begin, but not in necessary extent. From religious buildings of this period we mention the Church of St.Joseph at Marijin Dvor, and Orthodox Church near the hotel Bristol.
Unlike most of the cities in Yugoslavia, Sarajevo develops very slowly, the number of inhabitants in 1921 was about 60.000, in 1925 increased for 4.000, in 1931 around 72.000, and by 1941 about 78.000, which amounts to an increase of 30%. And in compare to Austro-Hungarian rule this number was around 140% for the period of 1879 to 1918.
Construction was unplanned, because there was no specific urban plans, unlike other cities in the new state. There was no construction of parks and other useful infrastructure, but were set up skyscrapers in the hearth of the city, which by no logical laws should be there.
The thirties will be the years when some kind of a new spirit overwhelm the city, because the city administration had been enriched by a educated and knowledgeable people, such as Bajlon, Šmanek, Juraj Najdhart who, with Dušan Grabrijan had done numerous studies of a city infrastructure regulations.
In the period 1918 to 1941 in Sarajevo were built:
1941 - 1945
In the dawn of World War II, Sarajevo has been hit by the food and basic necessities shortage. There was a need for the 150.00 meals for the Sarajevo population. Fascist Germany on the 6th of April 1941, with no announcement attacked Yugoslavia.
Sarajevo was bombed already, on April 13th, where were shot: Railway station, Hotel Zagreb, courthouse and post office, the settlement Medrese, Bjelave and Bistrik, Emperor's Mosque etc.
Already on April 15th in Sarajevo had entered occupational German units. Period 1941-1945 is defined by war conditions and the entry of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the new state, the Independent State of Croatia (NDH).
NDH then establishes a large parish Vrhbosna which was based at the Općina Sarajevo, when Sarajevo became the point of the highest organs of government.
The new regime was brutal, the kind of which Sarajevo did not remember through its long history. All the Serbian and Jewish organization were prohibited regardless of the activity for which they were engaged. Mass murders of Serbs, Jewish and Gypsies (Romes) took place. In Sarajevo before war lived 11.500 of Jews (around 12% of total population), and after the war, that number was reduced to around 4000.
The streets of the town got the new names by, Adolf Hitler, Mussolini, etc. State of emergency had deteriorated arrival of the large number of refugees, mainly from the eastern Bosnia and eastern Herzegovina. In Sarajevo in 1945 there were about 54.000 refugees, of which half were children. Provincial committee meets in July 30th, in Sarajevo, and makes a decision about the beginning of the rebellion of people in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
1945 – 1992
Sarajevo was set free on April 6th 1942. The city during the last period lost about 10% of its population, was demolished and destroyed. Sarajevo was a shelter for a large number of refugees, so in the first days of freedom there were around 120.000 inhabitants.
Sarajevo people were led by the great enthusiasm in order to participate in the clearance of ruins, cleaning streets, reconstruction of buildings, all in all, in life normalization. Names of the streets were again in the exchange processes. Main street of the city was being named Titova, since the change of name what was common for it.
It changed name very often over the time. During the Ottoman Empire it was called Ćemaluša, Austro-Hungarian time Fraz Josef, Petra Karadžordževića, and Ante Pavelića. Also some streets were given names after the persons who had no connection with Sarajevo, such as: Miloš Obilić, Vojvode Putnika (Obala Street), Dušanov Park (formerly Park Franz Josef or long time ago At-Mejdan).
In this period was given a plan which implied demolition of Baščaršija, and the reasons for such a absurd idea were: the extension of the streets, the shops do not have any historical or cultural value, and that they, since being very old, are suitable for the fires, the risk of infection or diseases etc. Fortunately, such a thing had never happened, and a lot regarding the credit of Hamdija Kreševljaković. Because of great efforts of this great man, Baščaršija today, together with this small shops represent the most representative monument of those ancient times.
Very soon, large investments began to arise, large projects.
First, in 1948, the construction of city stadium Koševo (capacity of 30.000, according to the plans of architect Anatol Kirijakov), and later the surrounding sports complex. In 1948, construction of the railway station, and afterwards construction of settlements Grbavica I and Čengić Vila I. By the decision of the Municipal Nacional Committee in 1949, the Sarajevo City Museum had been established.
During the same period, parks Vrelo Bosne, Pionirska dolina, area around Alipasha Mosque, had been built. Then Sarajevo already has 700.000 m2 of parks opposite to 150.00 before the war.
In 1946 the decision about the formation of Medical Faculty in Sarajevo had been made. Soon came along: Law, Agricultural-Forestry, Technical, and Veterinary Faculty and Faculty of Philosophy were made, so Sarajevo in 1949 got its University.
In 1955 Sarajevo has 167.000 inhabitants, and important monuments which were built to the time were:
During the 1955, the preliminary tenders for the construction of Marijin Dvor had been organized.
Victorious were Juraj Najdhart and Džemal Čelić, within the most important volumes were: a complex of buildings around the National Museum in the Neo-Renaissance style, property of Secondary technical school, building of a new train station and others. Also, problems of this period were water and telephone network.
A new tram line to Ilidža had been released, on November 29, 1960 (until then only to Dolac Malta settlement). In the 1961 Sarajevo had 213.101 inhabitants, what was the result of intensive immigration to the city.
Most of dilemmas about the outlook, purpose and future of Baščaršija had been solved, with the study “Old Sarajevo Čaršija, yesterday, today and tomorrow”, of author Alija Bejtić, who together with Zdravko Kovačević built the program for arranging čaršija, where they provided basic guidelines for the revitalization of čaršija.
One of the biggest problems of this period were the city cemeteries, of which there were in Sarajevo 114 (103 Muslim, 4 Orthodox, 4 Catholic, Jewish, War and Military). It was necessary to find the location for the main cemetery, which would be acceptable to all religions. As a result, the Bare were selected, and project was made by Smiljan Kljajić.
One of the most important projects that had to be done was in 1969, Skenderija. This, sport, cultural and business center was built by the project of Živorad Janković and Halid Musalihović, as a modern multifunctional object.
The facility had been open with the world premiere of movie, “Bitka na Neretvi” (Battle of Neretva), for which, the invitation letters had been designed by Pablo Picasso.
Famous buildings of this period are:
International Olympic Committee in 1977 announced that for the organization of the Olympic Winter Games in 1984, the nominees are: Japan (Sapporo), Sweden (Gothenburg), Yugoslavia (Sarajevo), and France, three cities.
The decision had been made in Athens, where Sarajevo had been chosen to host the XIV Winter Olympic Games. It was huge project, which required an entirely new Olympic facilities on Igman, Bjelašnica, Jahorina, sport center Zetra, bobsled track at Trebević, and many other facilities. That were, until then, the best organized games.
Art and culture, in this period was not behind, even furthermore. Sarajevo in this period had been a modern cultural metropolis: theaters, libraries, opera, ballet, galleries, publishing houses and newspapers, philharmonic orchestra, the radio-television, cinema and film companies, museums, archives, cultural and artistic societies were the bearers of culture.
Many writers have gained a reputation in the Yugoslav framework, and around the world, as for example: Ivo Andrić, Meša Selimović, Mak Dizdar, etc. Successes in the film and music industry can only be something with what the citizens of Sarajevo should be proud.